Notes on Programming Principles and Practice Using C++ Second Edition by Bjarne 

Part I The Basics

Chapter 2 Hello, World!

2.2 The classic first program

// This program outputs the message "Hello, World!" to the monitor
#include "std_lib_facilities.h"

int main()  // C++ programs start by executing the function main
 cout<<"Hello, World!\n"; // output "Hello, World!"
 return 0;

Noun      Definition
"string"  string
cout      character output stream
//comment everything after // is ignored by the compiler
.h        header file
main()    where every C++ program starts executing

Four Pats of a Function
Part            Definition
return type     what the function gives back
name            how we refer to the function
parameter list  enclosed in ()
function body   enclosed in {}

2.3 Compilation

Noun         Definition
source code  program text with .cpp file suffix
object code  machine code executed by the computer
compiler     transforms source code to object code

2.4 Linking

Noun                Definition
linker              puts together object files (translation units) to form an 
library             code accessed using declarations (found in an #include file)
declaration         program statement specifying how a piece of code can be used
compile-time error  errors found by the compiler
link-time errors    errors found by the linker
run-time errors     logical errors found when a program is executed (run)

2.5 Programming Environments

Run the hello_world.cpp program in your environment of choice.

To get Stroustrup's std_lib_facilities.h to work on my MacBook Air took some 
Ultimately, I was led to and, near the bottom of the 
page, read:

Using libc++ in your programs

FreeBSD and Mac OS X
To use your system-installed libc++ with clang you can:

clang++ -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp
clang++ -std=c++11 -stdlib=libc++ test.cpp
" on 20150914

Oddly, Apple redirects calls to g++ or gcc to clang without alerting you.

Chapter 2 Objects, Types, and Values

3.1 Input

Sources   for compiling Stroustrup's code on a mac